Browser Geolocation

What is browser geolocation? How does it relate to geocoding?

Browser geolocation is a technology supported by almost all web browsers which enables users to share their location - in the form of geographic coordinates (longitude and latitude) - with a web service.

Geocoding, on the other hand, is the process of turning coordinates into geographic information (address, placenames, etc) or vice versa.

The accuracy of the coordinates obtained from browser geolocation will depend on the underlying technology being used to determine the user's location, which could be GPS, WiFi network, phone cell tower mapping, or IP address. If the user is on a mobile device with a GPS signal, the coordinates can be highly accurate. If however the user is using an ISP and the location is coming from an IP to location lookup the location may not be accurate at all. The browser location may also be misleading if the user is accessing a web service via a VPN or similar technologies.

Once you have used browser geolocation to obtain the user's location in the form of coordinates, these coordinates can be reverse geocoded using the OpenCage geocoding API to be turned into geographic information like an address or a country, state/province, time zone, etc.

Please see the code example below or the OpenCage API reference for details of how to do the geocoding.

Privacy considerations

Because a user's location is private information, browser geolocation is only possible if the user explicitly grants permission to a web service via a browser prompt. You can see an example of what this looks like on these screenshots.

First, the user is shown a button to start the browser geolocation process:

OpenCage geocoding demo page - browser location example

Then the browser (Firefox in this screenshot) prompts to ask the user if location info should be shared. Only if the user allows it does the browser get access to the user's location information.

OpenCage demo page - browser location permission prompt

It is not possible to perform browser geolocation without the user's active consent.

Technical details / Code Example

Most modern web browsers support browser geolocation, but only in a secure context (HTTPS). Some older browsers may not support browser geolocation. It is advised to always check in your code whether browser geolocation is supported before attempting to use the functionality, as shown in this javascript example.

// browser location starts when this function is called
function getLocation() {

  // check to make sure geolocation is possible
  if (navigator.geolocation) {
    var options = {
      enableHighAccuracy: true,
      timeout: 5000,
      maximumAge: 0
    navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(success, error, options);
  } else {
    console.log('Geolocation is not supported'; }

function error(err) {
  console.warn(`ERROR(${err.code}): ${err.message}`);

function success(pos) {

  var query = pos.coords.latitude + ',' + pos.coords.longitude;
  console.log('coordinates: ' + query);
  console.log('accuracy: ' + pos.coords.accuracy + ' meters.');

  // now we have coordinates, it is time to use them to
  // do some reverse geocoding to get back the location information
  var api_url = ''
  var apikey = 'YOUR-API-KEY';

  var request_url = api_url
    + '?'
    + 'key=' + apikey
    + '&q=' + encodeURIComponent(query)
    + '&pretty=1'
    + '&no_annotations=1';

  // now we follow the steps in the OpenCage javascript tutorial
  // full example:

  var request = new XMLHttpRequest();'GET', request_url, true);

  request.onload = function() {
    // see full list of possible response codes:

    if (request.status === 200){  // Success!
      var data = JSON.parse(request.responseText);

    } else if (request.status <= 500){
      // We reached our target server, but it returned an error

      console.log("unable to geocode! Response code: " + request.status);
      var data = JSON.parse(request.responseText);
      console.log('error msg: ' + data.status.message);
    } else {
      console.log("server error");
  request.onerror = function() {
    // There was a connection error of some sort
    console.log("unable to connect to server");
  request.send();  // make the request

// trigger getLocation when the page is ready
// change to be when a certain button is clicked or action is taken

Further Reading

Happy geocoding!

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